Social Judgment: Warmth and Competence are Universal Dimensions

Cuddy, A. J. C., Fiske, S. T., & Glick, P. (in press). Competence and warmth as universal trait dimensions of interpersonal and intergroup perception: the stereotype content model and the BIAS map. In Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Zanna, M.P., ed.), Academic Press.

Cuddy, A. J. C., Fiske, S. T., Kwan, V. S. Y., Glick, P., Demoulin, S., Leyens, J-Ph., et al. (in press). Is the stereotype content model culture-bound? A cross-cultural comparison reveals systematic similarities and differences. British Journal of Social Psychology.

Fiske, S. T. (1998). Stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination. In D. T. Gilbert, S. T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology (4th ed., Vol. 2, pp. 357-411). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Fiske, S.T. & Cuddy, A. J. C. (2006). Stereotype content and relative group status across cultures. In Social Comparison Processes and Levels of Analysis: Understanding Culture, Intergroup Relations and Cognition (Guimond, S., ed.), pp. 249–263, Cambridge University Press.

Fiske, S. T., Cuddy, A. J., Glick, P., & Xu, J. (2002). A model of (often mixed) stereotype content: Competence and warmth respectively follow from perceived status and competition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 878-902.

Fiske, S. T., Xu, J., Cuddy, A. C., & Glick, P. (1999). (Dis)respecting versus (dis)liking: Status and interdependence predict ambivalent stereotypes of competence and warmth. Journal of Social Issues, 55, 473-491.

Harris, L.T. and Fiske, S.T. (2006). Dehumanizing the lowest of the low: neuro-imaging responses to extreme outgroups.Psychological Science, 17, 847–853.

Judd, C. M., James-Hawkins, L., Yzerbyt, V., Kashima, Y. (2005). Fundamental dimensions of social judgment: Understanding the relations between judgments of competence and warmth. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 899-913.

Oldmeadow, J., & Fiske, S. T. (2007). Ideology moderates status = competence stereotypes: Roles for Belief in a Just World and Social Dominance Orientation. European Journal of Social Psychology, 37, 1135-1148.

Peeters, G. (2001). From good and bad to can and must: subjective necessity of acts associated with positively and negatively valued stimuli. European Journal of Social Psychology, 31, 125–136.

Rosenberg, S., Nelson, C., & Vivekananthan, P. S. (1968). A multidimensional approach to the structure of personality impressions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 9, 283–294.

Willis, J., & Todorov, A. (2006). First impressions: making up your mind after a 100-ms exposure to a face. Psychological Science, 17, 592–598.

Wojciszke, B. (1994). Multiple meanings of behavior: construing actions in terms of competence or morality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 222–232.

Wojciszke, B. (2005). Affective concomitants of information on morality and competence. European Psychologist, 10, 60–70.

Wojciszke, B. and Klusek, B. (1996). Moral and competence-related traits in political perception. Polish Psychological Bulletin, 27, 319–324.

Yzerbyt, V. Y., Provost, V., & Corneille, O. (2005). Not competent but warm... Really? Compensatory stereotypes in the French-speaking world. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 8, 291-308.

Zanna, M. P., & Hamilton, D. L. (1972). Attribute dimensions and patterns of trait inferences. Psychonomic Science, 27, 353-354.

article author(s)