A distinct set of concepts or thought patterns, including theories, research methods, postulates and standards for what constitutes legitimate contributions to a field; in this case a scientific method.     

paranoid schizophrenia

a chronic mental illness, a subtype of schizophrenia, dominated by hallucinations, perceptual disturbances and symptoms of fear


is a wrench dropped into our emotions. If experienced on its own without any other types of love is considered mere infatuation

peer culture

the set of shared behaviors, norms, and values created and maintained by children through interaction with their peers

perceived consensus

the extent to which people feel that they agree with one another


the interpretation of sensory experiences


anxiety disorder; inappropriately exaggerated fear of and therefore avoidance of certain situations or objects


An exaggerated and/or irrational fear: “A persistent fear of a specific object, activity, or situation...out of proportion to the actual danger posed by the specific object or situation that results in a compelling desire to avoid it” (DSM-5; APA, 2013).

physical evidence

Objects found at a crime scene, such as fingerprints, footprints, handprints, tool marks, fibers etc. 

physical resources

those energy reserves that stem from physical or physiological states of the body, such as age, fitness, or glucose levels

physical response

This internal consent feeling is associated with the body's automatic response to an engaging or exciting sexual stimulus.

physiognomic homogamy

is mating based on facial likenesses (a term presumably first used by Griffiths & Kunz, 1973)

physiological benefits

improve the processes and functions of (parts of) the body


Somewhat similar to a control condition, a placebo is used to determine whether an effect of a substance (or treatment) was indeed caused by that specific treatment. A placebo is a similar looking but ineffectual procedure (e.g., a similar looking and tasting pill). The difference between a placebo condition and treatment condition informs about the specific effect of the treatment. Placebos are used to rule out that an effect is merely driven by expectancy effects of the recipient.


lower classes, or of the lower classes; it comes from the Roman term for the people: pleb

pluralistic ignorance

a situation where a majority of group members falsely assumes that nothing is wrong because no one else looks concerned. Especially occurs in ambiguous situations

positive psychology

a field within psychology which refers to the scientific study of positive experiences and positive individual traits, and the institutions that facilitate their development; it is concerened with well-being and optimal functioning and assumes that these are not equal to the absence of sadness, surrefing, and worry, but also include contentment, joy, and satisfaction, which in turn depend on building up and cultivating positive emotions and strengths


"an individual’s relative capacity to modify others’ states by providing or withholding resources or administering punishments" (Keltner, Gruenfeld, & Anderson, 2003, p. 265)


In a pre-registration, scientists formally document their research ideas, hypotheses, scientific methods and how they will analyze their data before they conduct the actual study. The goal of a pre-registration is to ensure openness and transparency about how a study was intended. Thus, a pre-registration provides proof about the hypothesis of a study before the results are known. Preregistrations have been argued to increase trust in the interpretation of a study even for researchers themselves who might unwittingly change the way they treat their data in light of what it tells them.

precarious manhood

the idea that manhood status is widely viewed as both elusive (difficult to achieve) and tenuous (easy to lose)


any attitude, emotion or behaviour towards members of a group, which directly or indirectly implies some negativity or antipathy towards that group (Brown, 2011)

an emotional dislike of someone based purely on their group membership; this can be conscious (i.e., “South-Eastern North Dakotans just creep me out”) or unconscious (“I guess we never did hire any of the Black candidates. Funny that.”); they can be justified (“I have inexplicable urges to be mean to child molesters”) or unjustified (“Those Jews, always out to get us”)


the activation of a mental or cognitive representation by increasing its accessibility (and thus also the likelihood it will be used)

exposing people to words, pictures, or activities that activate certain concepts in their minds

exposing people to words, pictures, or activities that activate certain concepts in their minds

refers to the phenomenon that exposure to an object or word in one context increases the cognitive accessibility of that object or concept in people’s mind as well as the accessibility of related objects or concepts; these activated concepts influence people’s behavior in subsequent unrelated contexts without them being aware of this influence (Bargh & Chartrand, 1999)

activating thoughts about a particular subject, topic, or object

refers to the incidental activation of knowledge structures, such as trait concepts and stereotypes, by the current situational context. (Bargh, J. A., Chen, M., & Burrows, L., 1996)

Principle of co-construction

Recall of autobiographical events in conversation is both the product of the speaker and the listener    

pro-community behavior

behaviorthat isbeneficial to the community and its residents 

problem-focused coping

problem Focused coping is directed at finding a solution to resolve a problem; includes cognitions and behaviors that are directed at analyzing and solving a difficulty; it may include "chunking" or breaking a problem into more manageable pieces, seeking information, and considering alternatives, as well as direct action

procedural fairness judgments

refers to the perceived fairness of decision-making procedures

processing fluency theory

The processing fluency shows how easy it is for our brain to process a stimulus. Easier to process stimuli and information are retrieved from memory faster, (aesthetically) preferred, and judged as more true.


Reference: A. L. Alter and D. M. Oppenheimer, „Uniting the Tribes of Fluency to Form a Metacognitive Nation“, Personal. Soc. Psychol. Rev., Bd. 13, Nr. 3, S. 219–235, Aug. 2009, doi: 10.1177/1088868309341564.



the tendency to postpone (unpleasant) tasks in favor for more pleasurable tasks, sometimes to the “last minute” before reaching a deadline

pronunciation simulations

even if we read something silently, our articulation system (the mouth) is engaged, like in an inner speech

Synonyms: subvocal articulation

prosocial behavior

Voluntary helpful behaviour that has positive consequences for other people

Prototype Analysis

are a series of studies in which researchers ask people to list words associated with a particular subject and then rate the most frequently listed words for how central (or prototypical) they are to the subject, for example, if asked to list words associated with fruit, frequently appearing, centrally rated words might include: apple, orange, and banana; whereas, infrequent or non-central words might include: kiwi, star fruit, and kumquat


An early form of psychotherapy, it aims to increase a person’s “awareness of his or her own unconscious psychological processes and how these processes affect daily functioning”; such insights help free the person from “unconscious influences,” and as a result, problematic symptoms diminish (Gazzaniga et al., 2016, p. 656).


originating from the mind

psychological attachment

a positive emotional response and connection towards a person, place, or object

psychological attachment

a positive emotional response and connection towards a person, place, or object 


psychological costs

The internal discomfort people might experience when doing something against their beliefs or values. Psychological costs can mean to feel shame or guilt, or to doubt one’s positive self-image. Such costs can keep people from doing something immoral or undesirable, even when no one witnesses the behavior, to prevent feeling bad about oneself afterwards.

psychological health

a person’s overall mental condition

psychological resources

those energy reserves that stem from psychological or mental states of the body, such as motivations, desires, and feelings of energization

psychological threat

an experience or situation that undermines psychological health and has the potential to lead to distress


posttraumatic stress disorder, a mental health condition that can occur after a traumatic event like war, assault, or disaster; symptoms include disturbing recurring flashbacks, avoidance of memories of the event, etc.

public goods dilemma

Whereas commons dilemmas involve taking from a resource, public goods dilemmas involve giving to a resource. Environmental examples include: increased taxes to improve local recycling facilities, and voluntary contributions or time to preserve local wildlife. If an individual does not contribute, she may still free-ride and benefit from the public good, but if no one contributes, the resource will either fail to come into existence or fail to flourish. (See laboratory social dilemmas for a description of how this works experimentally.)

Publication bias

Publication bias refers to the effect that the outcome of a study can influence the likelihood of being published. If only “positive”, statistically significant results are published in scientific journals and studies with negative and inconclusive results remain unknown, the overall strength of a finding is in doubt. One reason for publication bias might be that researchers forego to publish results that are not statistically significant, because they regard them as less interesting. Inconclusive results may also have a diminished chance to be accepted by scientific journals. Pre-registration of research has been proposed as one means to combat publication bias.

purchase intentions

the stated likelihood that someone will buy a product in the future