Unconditioned response

“A response that does not have to be learned, such as a reflex” (Gazzaniga et al., 2016, p. 227).

Unconditioned stimulus

“A stimulus that elicits a response, such as a reflex, without any prior learning” (Gazzaniga et al., 2016, p. 227).

understanding hypothesis

states that revenge can only be satisfactory when the offender understands it as a response to his/her prior (wrong) behavior

uniquely human

characteristics distinguish humans from animals; when uniquely human characteristics are denied, we talk about animalistic dehumanization (i.e., the target is perceived as an animal)


theory in moral philosophy suggesting the right thing to do is whatever maximizes aggregate wellbeing