is a motivational state with the ultimate goal of increasing one’s own welfare

embodied cognition

the theory that sensory and motor processes play an important role in cognition and cognitive processes, such as thinking, reasoning, and memory

embodied perception

the notion that people’s perceptions of the world around them are influenced by and sensitive to the states of their bodies



the association of an abstract concept with a concrete, perceivable stimulus, for instance, the abstract concept of time can be embodied in the concrete image of something flowing horizontally (Boroditsky, 2001)

the idea of embodiment is that the way our mind works is deeply rooted in the way our body works; more precisely, one of the ideas discussed by researchers in this field is that the concepts we hold about the world – our mental toolbox to understand the world, to categorize it, and to provide it with labels – is entirely based on direct bodily experience

a psychological theory that holds that our knowledge and thoughts are not abstract definitions in the brain, but are based on sensory experiences and bodily actions


refers to the development of a higher-level property in a dynamical system due to the mutual influence among the system’s inter-connected elements;  in a mental system, the mutual influence among cognitive elements in the stream of thought can promote the emergence of a global attitude or belief;  in a social system, the mutual influence among individuals can promote the emergence of a group norm or ideology

Emotion Focused Coping

refers to the individuals’ attempts to alleviate the negative emotions elicited by stressful events; directed at reducing mental distress

emotional contagion

a phenomenon whereby emotions spread through groups of people

empathic concern

is an other-oriented emotional response elicited by and congruent with the plight of a person in need


an individual’s tendency to take the perspective of another person and/or have tender concerned feelings about that person

Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis

is the hypothesis that empathic concern produces altruistic motivation

empirical research

a scientific way of gaining knowledge by using a collection of data to base a theory or derive a conclusion

employee time horizon

an employee’s belief about how long he/she will be with an organization


bodily mobilization of physiological resources to respond to task demands; one example is sympathetic nervous system reactivity

equality matching

people seek out for balance in the relationship; it implies a reciprocity norm (turn taking, or equal share distributions)

Eugenics Movement

a social philosophy popular in the 1920’s whose members advocated selective breeding to improve the human race

evocative rGE

refers to responses that are evoked from the environment by genetically influenced characteristics of an individual, for example, a child characterized by high levels of antisocial behavior − a trait showing substantial heritability − is more likely to elicit harsh discipline from parents than an obedient child

executive functions

a set of cognitive functions with which people control and regulate their behavior in complex situations under the consideration of environmental factors (for example the selection of goals and the planning of actions); these functions modulate and regulate information processing in the cognitive system and several sub-processes in the control of behavior; such behavior control is required for simple and distinct tasks (e.g., typing a word on a computer keyboard), as well as complex and global tasks (e.g., planning a family party)

experimental research

the study of psychological processes such as cognition (including perception, memory, thinking, and language), learning, feelings and emotions, and skills through controlled experiments; the general plan of an experiment, including the method of assigning research participants or subjects to treatment conditions, controlling extraneous variables, manipulating the independent variable, and measuring the dependent variable

experimenter effect

effect showing that the expectations we hold affect the responses we obtain. This concerns various areas, such as research, teaching, adjudication and lineup administrations


one of the Big Five personality factors ranging from extreme extraversion characterized by traits such as sociability and assertiveness, to extreme introversion, characterized by reserve and passivity

extrinsic religiosity

the extent to which an individual treats religion as a means to an end