means “pertaining to the sense of touch”. Tactile experiences are one type of haptic sensory information

task switching paradigm

used to examine the sequential handling of different component tasks (in comparison to simultaneous tasks in the dual-task paradigm); this paradigm includes trials with repeated tasks and trials with shifts between tasks; the typical performance costs under the condition of a task switch in comparison to task repetitions (for example: longer response times; switch costs) are an indicator of using the executive function “shifting“; this function is associated with the flexible configuration of the cognitive system during the shift between different tasks

teleo-functional reasoning

thinking in terms of purpose and meaning, even when it is inappropriate or inaccurate to do so


a desire that conflicts with a person’s values, standards or goals

tend and befriend

assumption that humans, among other animals, seek social support and protect their offspring when under threat

the twin design

studies that compare the similarity of a certain behavior between identical (monozygotic) and non-identical (dizygotic) twins; the comparison leads to estimates of the genetic and environmental contributions to the differences in the behavior examined (e.g., children’s personality characteristics, the parenting that the child receives)

Theory of Mind

the ability to attribute mental states, beliefs, intents, desires, pretending, knowledge, etc., to oneself and others and to understand that others have beliefs, desires and intentions that are different from one's own

threat-related neural responses

pertain to activations of neurons in the brain that are evoked by threatening situations

touch-based therapies

such as massage therapy use the beneficial effects of touch to treat health problems or psychological disorders


in psychology, refers to an attribute or quality exhibited by a person. Importantly, traits are constant, or stable, over time and situations

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

a technique that scientists use to briefly increase or decrease activity in particular brain regions, by introducing brief magnetic pulses across the scalp. These pulses cause electrical changes in targeted brain areas