is a wrench dropped into our emotions. If experienced on its own without any other types of love is considered mere infatuation

peer culture

the set of shared behaviors, norms, and values created and maintained by children through interaction with their peers

perceived consensus

the extent to which people feel that they agree with one another


the interpretation of sensory experiences

physical resources

those energy reserves that stem from physical or physiological states of the body, such as age, fitness, or glucose levels

physiognomic homogamy

is mating based on facial likenesses (a term presumably first used by Griffiths & Kunz, 1973)

physiological benefits

improve the processes and functions of (parts of) the body


Somewhat similar to a control condition, a placebo is used to determine whether an effect of a substance (or treatment) was indeed caused by that specific treatment. A placebo is a similar looking but ineffectual procedure (e.g., a similar looking and tasting pill). The difference between a placebo condition and treatment condition informs about the specific effect of the treatment. Placebos are used to rule out that an effect is merely driven by expectancy effects of the recipient.


lower classes, or of the lower classes; it comes from the Roman term for the people: pleb

pluralistic ignorance

a situation where a majority of group members falsely assumes that nothing is wrong because no one else looks concerned. Especially occurs in ambiguous situations

positive psychology

a field within psychology which refers to the scientific study of positive experiences and positive individual traits, and the institutions that facilitate their development; it is concerened with well-being and optimal functioning and assumes that these are not equal to the absence of sadness, surrefing, and worry, but also include contentment, joy, and satisfaction, which in turn depend on building up and cultivating positive emotions and strengths


"an individual’s relative capacity to modify others’ states by providing or withholding resources or administering punishments" (Keltner, Gruenfeld, & Anderson, 2003, p. 265)

precarious manhood

the idea that manhood status is widely viewed as both elusive (difficult to achieve) and tenuous (easy to lose)


any attitude, emotion or behaviour towards members of a group, which directly or indirectly implies some negativity or antipathy towards that group (Brown, 2011)

an emotional dislike of someone based purely on their group membership; this can be conscious (i.e., “South-Eastern North Dakotans just creep me out”) or unconscious (“I guess we never did hire any of the Black candidates. Funny that.”); they can be justified (“I have inexplicable urges to be mean to child molesters”) or unjustified (“Those Jews, always out to get us”)


the activation of a mental or cognitive representation by increasing its accessibility (and thus also the likelihood it will be used)

exposing people to words, pictures, or activities that activate certain concepts in their minds

exposing people to words, pictures, or activities that activate certain concepts in their minds

refers to the phenomenon that exposure to an object or word in one context increases the cognitive accessibility of that object or concept in people’s mind as well as the accessibility of related objects or concepts; these activated concepts influence people’s behavior in subsequent unrelated contexts without them being aware of this influence (Bargh & Chartrand, 1999)

activating thoughts about a particular subject, topic, or object

refers to the incidental activation of knowledge structures, such as trait concepts and stereotypes, by the current situational context. (Bargh, J. A., Chen, M., & Burrows, L., 1996)

Principle of co-construction

Recall of autobiographical events in conversation is both the product of the speaker and the listener    

pro-community behavior

behaviorthat isbeneficial to the community and its residents 

problem-focused coping

problem Focused coping is directed at finding a solution to resolve a problem; includes cognitions and behaviors that are directed at analyzing and solving a difficulty; it may include "chunking" or breaking a problem into more manageable pieces, seeking information, and considering alternatives, as well as direct action

procedural fairness judgments

refers to the perceived fairness of decision-making procedures


the tendency to postpone (unpleasant) tasks in favor for more pleasurable tasks, sometimes to the “last minute” before reaching a deadline

pronunciation simulations

even if we read something silently, our articulation system (the mouth) is engaged, like in an inner speech

Synonyms: subvocal articulation

Prototype Analysis

are a series of studies in which researchers ask people to list words associated with a particular subject and then rate the most frequently listed words for how central (or prototypical) they are to the subject, for example, if asked to list words associated with fruit, frequently appearing, centrally rated words might include: apple, orange, and banana; whereas, infrequent or non-central words might include: kiwi, star fruit, and kumquat


originating from the mind

psychological attachment

a positive emotional response and connection towards a person, place, or object 


psychological attachment

a positive emotional response and connection towards a person, place, or object

psychological health

a person’s overall mental condition

psychological resources

those energy reserves that stem from psychological or mental states of the body, such as motivations, desires, and feelings of energization

psychological threat

an experience or situation that undermines psychological health and has the potential to lead to distress


posttraumatic stress disorder, a mental health condition that can occur after a traumatic event like war, assault, or disaster; symptoms include disturbing recurring flashbacks, avoidance of memories of the event, etc.

purchase intentions

the stated likelihood that someone will buy a product in the future