the social roles, behaviors, attributes, and activities that a given society or culture deems appropriate for women and men

refers to the characteristics that a society or culture considers as masculine or feminine

gender identity

 a person’s sense of the self as female or male, along with the importance placed on gender and the feelings associated with membership in one’s gender group

gender role norms

explicit or implicit rules about what members of a given gender ought and ought not do

gender roles

shared beliefs and expectations about the behaviors, traits, qualities, and competencies that are associated with being male or female


the functional unit of inheritance affecting the expression of one or more traits

gene-environment correlation

the phenomenon in which genetically influenced characteristics of the individual are correlated with the behavior or responses of the environment (e.g., parenting)

general action/inaction goals

goals with “end states” at the two extremes of overall activity level; a general action goal has an end state of very high motor/cognitive output, and a general inaction goal has an end state of very low motor/cognitive output

genetic markers

are variations or mutations in the DNA sequence that geneticists have identified as having some link (or potential link) to hereditary disease or some other human variation


is the total hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in that organism’s DNA; the human genome consists of 3,200,000,000 base pairs of genes


any type of end state, outcome, or objective that people set and are then motivated to pursue through specific behaviors and thoughts


the exchange of evaluative information about individuals who are not present


refers to successfully adding a contribution to the common ground; when a contribution to a conversation has been grounded it means that both conversation partners recognize it is now part of the shared knowledge or common ground (e.g. someone says "You know Harry had an accident", and someone replies "oh, did he?")

group emotion

refers to an emotion that is based on an appraisal occurring on a group basis; these emotions do not necessarily have to be based on someone's individual experience, but rather on one's group identity

group mind

is defined as LeBon`s supernatural force possessing those who dare to join a crowd

group monitoring

The group monitoring hypothesis argues that groups may be less affected by impairing factors, such as sleep deprivation, as compared to individuals. In groups, sleep deprived individuals might motivate each other or compensate for errors and decreased performance of other group members.

group polarisation

the tendency for people, when placed in group situations, to make decisions and form opinions to more of an extreme than when they are in individual situations

group self

is that part of the individuals` self-concept that is derived from their group membership(s)


The overemphasized harmony and conformity within the group in decision making contexts. This tendency comes at the price of reduced critical thinking and controversy and is likely to result in irrational or dysfunctional decision making.


means relating to the governor

gustatory stimuli

stimuli related to the sense of taste