lay person

a person without specialized knowledge or professional expertise in a particular subject

leading question

A question or statement that contains information that the interviewer wishes to have confirmed or that suggests a particular answer.


the process of making something acceptable and normative in a group and/or in society as a whole


a rating scale commonly used in questionnaires when researchers want to measure the intensity (of an attitude, for example) or frequency of something; the respondent is asked to indicate their response (generally the level of agreement or disagreement with a statement) on a scale that is considered symmetric or "balanced" because there are equal numbers of positive and negative positions

limpieza de sangre

this was a document prepared by special genealogists which certified that the holder had no base blood; originally, in Spain, these documents were designed to guarantee that the person did not have any Jewish, Muslim, or heretic ancestors as well as anyone found guilty of treason or exercising base professions; any one of these taints was considered dishonorable; in the Latin American context, the purity of blood was also racialized by certifying the lack of indigenous or African blood

linear relationship

a relationship in which any given change in an independent variable will always produce a corresponding change in the dependent variable


a lineup is constructed by placing a person suspected of committing a crime (the suspect) among a collection of innocent people (fillers); an eyewitness is asked to identify the offender from this collection, with a suitable admonition that the offender may not be present

lineup administrator

the police officer who guides the witness during the lineup identification procedure. S/he provides instructions and takes notes regarding the identification decision

lineup rejection

an identification decision where the witness decides not to choose anyone in the lineup, indicating that they do not believe the perpetrator of the crime is present

locus of control

a cognitive style of personality trait characterized by a generalized expectancy about the relationship between behavior and the subsequence occurrence of reinforcement in the form of reward or punishment; people with internal locus of control tend to expect reinforcements to be the consequences of their own efforts or behavior, whereas people with external locus of control expect them to be the consequences of chance, luck, fate, or the actions of powerful others